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Home » Discover » Bulls and the Camargue Races » Bull-fighting glossary

 

 

 

Abrivado or arrival on foot: the bulls are released down the main village street, accompanied by the herdsmen on horse.


Aficionado: anyone who has a taste or passion for something.


Anouble: a one-year-old bull.


Attributs: the objects (rosette, tassels and strings) fixed on the bull's horns for the race. Each attribut is removed using the "crochet" or hook and earns the razeteur points.


Bandido: consist in leading the bulls to the meadows at the end of the afternoon, after the races (it is the opposite of the abrivado). 


Becerrada: a play act of killing the bull 


biou: (literally) bull 


taù bistourné: Bull of the Camargue, name given to the 'cocardier'.


Biò d'Or: reward annually awarded by a jury, to the best bull of the season.


Bouvino or bouvine: refers to the bull-fighting milieu as a whole, organised around Camargue bulls, the geographical region where they are bread and games they participate in. Everything to do with the world of the 'Biòu'. The world of the Bouvine refers to all those who are caught up by the "Fé de Bioù" (passion for bulls/bullfighting)


Cabestria: release of cabestros (bulls), wearing cowbells, which are used to take the bulls, that have been refused onto the track, back to the pen.


Capea: bullfight without picador and where the bulls are not killed


Capelado: from the word 'capel', hat in Languedocian. Entry of the razeteurs and their salute to the President and the public before the beginning of the game.


Carmen: extracts from Bizet's opera, the Toreador's famous tune, played during the capelado, as a reward after jumping over the barrier or at the exit of a deserving bull. In this last case this is an indirect sign of recognition for the breeder. 


Rosette: small red ribbon


Cocardier: Camargue bull that shows its quality and bravery on the track.


Concours des manades: Competition using bulls from different herds.


Coup de barrière: the razeteur, arriving at the barrier, jumps over it and the bull continues, hitting the boards with his breast. This brilliant action is generally saluted. on the President's order, by the music of Carmen.


Coup de revers: defensive head movement by the bull.


Coupe de la Cocarde: "Couper la cocarde" : action of cutting the string which holds the rosette in place; this is also just called, " coupe". 


Coupe du frontal: "Couper le frontal" : action of cutting the string which passes behind the bulls forehead and horns. This is also just called the " frontal". 


Couper le taureau: bad razet move where the razeteur's move interrupts the bull's trajectory too violently.


Couper le terrain: movement by the bull that cuts the razeteur's trajectory. Synonym: anticipate


Run (Courrir): when a razeteur or bull takes part in a Camargue race.


Courrir aux emboulés: bull race where the tips of the bulls horns are protected by padding to avoid accidents.


Bare-horn racing (courrir cornes nues): bull race where the bull's horns are unprotected, their horns are bare, without padding. Synonym: courrir en pointes. Opposite: courrir aux emboulés.


Course (race): term covering any form of bull-fighting spectacle that obeys Camargue tradition, except for the 'ferrade' or comedy shows.


Camargue races: official name for the free races using rosettes, recognised as a sporting show since 1975. 


Night races: races during which local young people compete with young bulls. For the breeders, this is also an opportunity to see their young bulls in action.


Course de protection: Camargue race opposing beginner razeteurs to young bulls of less than 6 years old, where the aim continues to be to protect the bull while allowing it to gain experience. This is more simply known as " protection". 


Course libre (free races): in the 19th century, the race carried no performance criteria and allowed anyone to participate.


Crochet: from the Provençal " crouchet". An iron tool in the shape of claw, which the razeteur uses to remove the attributs from the bull's horns.


Devise: From the spanish 'divisa'. The colours that represent a herd.


Doublen or doublenco: Young, two-year old bull.


S'ecarter : said of a razeteur who moves back in front of the bull to correct bad a posture.


Bull-fighting school: place where young talented students learn the art of the razet.


" bien embané" : said of a bull that has beautiful horns.


" De se faire embaner" : To be caught by the bull's horns. Synonym: cornada


Embouler: action of protecting the bull's horns.


Encierro: releasing the bulls


Encocarder: fixing the 'attributs' on the bull's head.


Escoussure: nick on the bull's ears to mark out each herd


Fe di Biòu: taste, love and passion for Camargue bulls and horses (of course!) which brings people out onto the village streets to take part in, or admire, the bull games.


Ferrade, ferrado: operation which consists in marking the left thigh of the young bull, with the herd's sign (means of recognition, similar to a coats-of-arms) and cutting the nick on the bull's ear.


Ficelle: 70 to 90 cm string made of flax, known as the " ficelle de bourrelier" that is used to tie the rosette onto the bull's horns.


Frontal: flat part of the bull's head going from the arch of the eyebrows to the horns. String tied around both horns. Gives points to the razeteur.


Glands (tassels): attributs worn by the Camargue bull: two small white woolen pompoms fixed under each horn by a rubber band. They are the second 'attributs' to be removed.


Jeux Gardiens: the herdsmen's games are a measure the horsemen's skill.


Manade: herd of horses or bulls


Manadier: from the Provençal menaïre, herd driver. Refers to the owner of a herd.


Nacioun Gardiano: brotherhood founded in 1904 by the Baron Folco de Baroncelli. It's main objective is "to protect and promote the Arlesian costume, the customs and traditions of the land of bulls" , and to promote the Occitan language.


Pena: Spanish-style music band, primarily made up of brass instruments and percussions (feria music) 


Razet: action which leads the razeteur to pass very close to the bulls head in an attempt to remove the 'attributs' using the 'crochet'.


Razeting: from the Provençal rasa, to shave. To pass close by.


Razeteur: name given to a man, dressed in white, who meets a bull in a razet game.


Roussataïo: To release mares and horses onto the streets.


Royale: Camargue race in which the six best bulls of a herd are presented.


Saison taurine (Bull-fighting season): period of the year during which the Camargue races take place, generally from mid-March to in mid-November. This is also just called "la saison". 


Temporada: the bullfighting season.


Tertulia: debate after the bullfight, to discuss the fight 


Tienta: selection trial of a bull at a cattle farm, in order to test its bravery and its nobility before the mating season.


Trident d' Or: annual competition between herds. Points for each of the races in this competition are awarded by a jury.


Tri: the morning of a race or of a ferrade, the herd owner and his herdsmen bring the herd together and put them in the sorting field.  


Trident: iron rod, generally tapered at the end, to which a handle is attached (either an ash-tree or chestnut branch). 


Trophée de l'Avenir: a classification based the ensemble of races held in different places and throughout the season, counting the number of points awarded in order to find the razeteur with the most points, in races of this competition reserved for razeteurs under the age of 24.


Trophée des Aces: prize awarded according to the same criteria as the other trophies, but where the participants are in the 1 st category classification, by the Trophée des As Commission.


Trophée des razeteurs: this trophy is similar to the two above but is intended for razeteurs who do not classify to " courrir aux As" and who have passed the age to qualify for the Trophée de l'Avenir.


Trophée Taurin: ensemble of races organised by various daily newspapers (Provençal and Midi Libre).



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